- Install Dependencies
- Download and patch
- Build and Install
- Additional Configuration
These are my notes on how to install install preempt_rt patch for linux kernel on Ubuntu 18.04. I am doing this for a robot control application where non-determinism can cause damage to life or property. I will be writing more blog posts about real time implementation for robotic applications.
We will be installing RT-PREEMPT kernel on ubuntu 18.04. Kernel version I am choosing is 5.4 since it is the latest LTS release.
Install compilers required for building the kernel
sudo apt install build-essential git libssl-dev libelf-dev
Download and patch
linux-5.4.17 kernel from kernel.org and the
wget https://mirrors.edge.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v5.x/linux-5.4.19.tar.xz wget https://mirrors.edge.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/projects/rt/5.4/patch-5.4.19-rt11.patch.xz
Extract the archive and apply the patch
xz -cd linux-5.4.19.tar.xz | tar xvf - cd linux-5.4.19 xzcat ../patch-5.4.19-rt11.patch.xz | patch -p1
copy over your old config and use that to configure your new kernel
kautilya@johnny-5:~/factory/linux-5.4.19/ > cp /boot/config-5.3.0-40-generic .config kautilya@johnny-5:~/factory/linux-5.4.19/ > make oldconfig
when asked for Preemption Model, select the option “Fully Preemptible Kernel” and accept the default value for the rest.
Alternatively, you could use the graphical interface to configure it using menuconfig.
menuconfig requires flex and bison dependencies
sudo apt install flex bison
open config editor using
PREEMPT_RT and set it to “Fully Preemptible Kernel (RT)”.
Build and Install
Build the kernel as a debian package using make command
$ make -j8 deb-pkg ... $ sudo dpkg -i ../linux-headers-5.4.19-rt11_5.4.19-rt11-1_amd64.deb ../linux-image-5.4.19-rt11_5.4.19-rt11-1_amd64.deb ../linux-libc-dev_5.4.19-rt11-1_amd64.deb ...
Reboot your system and check the kernel. It should show
kautilya@johnny-5:~/factory/linux-5.4.19/ > uname -a Linux johnny-5 5.4.19-rt11 #1 SMP PREEMPT_RT Fri Feb 21 12:54:56 PST 2020 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux
Add your user to
$ sudo groupadd realtime ... $ sudo usermod -aG realtime $USER ...
add the following to
$ sudo nano /etc/security/limits.d/99-realtime.conf @realtime soft rtprio 99 @realtime soft priority 99 @realtime soft memlock 102400 @realtime hard rtprio 99 @realtime hard priority 99 @realtime hard memlock 102400
disable cpu scaling by setting the cpu governer to
$ sudo apt install cpufrequtils ...
Check the available cpufreq governers using
cpufreq-info, in my case they
were performance and powersave
kautilya@johnny-5:~/ > cpufreq-info cpufrequtils 008: cpufreq-info (C) Dominik Brodowski 2004-2009 Report errors and bugs to email@example.com, please. analyzing CPU 0: driver: intel_pstate CPUs which run at the same hardware frequency: 0 CPUs which need to have their frequency coordinated by software: 0 maximum transition latency: 4294.55 ms. hardware limits: 800 MHz - 4.60 GHz available cpufreq governors: performance, powersave current policy: frequency should be within 800 MHz and 4.60 GHz. The governor "performance" may decide which speed to use within this range. current CPU frequency is 4.40 GHz.
set the cpu frequency to performance using the following
$ sudo systemctl disable ondemand ... $ sudo systemctl enable cpufrequtils ... $ sudo sh -c 'echo "GOVERNOR=performance" > /etc/default/cpufrequtils' ... $ sudo systemctl daemon-reload && sudo systemctl restart cpufrequtils ...
I want to run a few programs that do not have a low latency requirements and would like to isolate them from the real time programs. For this, I am going to partition 2 of my 4 CPU cores to real time and other 2 to non realtime.
You can also set exclusively which CPU your program runs on by setting its CPU affinity.